Use of “de” and “desde”
Desde is used to denote space and time elements from one point to another.
Work time is from sunrise to sunset.
El hora de trabajo desde subida del sol hasta sumida del sol.
The important part in education is from Grade I to Grade VI.
El importante parte na educación desde primer grado hasta seis grado.
“De” can be the prepositions “of” or “from”.
“De” is used to denote possession and ownership:
This is a bowl of soup. Este un tasa de caldo.
This ring is of gold. Este anillo de oro. This book is of Maria. Este libro de Maria.
Jose is from Luzon. Si Jose de Luzon.
”De” is used to say that something is made out of a material like:
The table is of wood. El mesa de palo.
The cup is of silver. El copa de plata.
“Desde” is used in correlation with a starting time and limit. It is used to state a point in time or place from which something starts or begins like a thing, an event or a distance.
Since Monday Desde Lunes
Desde Manila para Zamboanga.
from my house desde mi casa
“Desde” is used to express time / location:
since that time desde aquel tiempo
from my school desde mi escuela
since my birth desde mi nacimiento
“Desde” is used to introduce a point of view or an opinion, as: from a historical point of view – desde el punto histórica
from my point of view
– desde mi punto de vista
They walk from the house to school.
Ta camina sila desde casa para escuela.
What is the distance from there to here?
Cosa el distancia desde allá para aquí?
The Use of “gayot”
Gayot is used to stress or emphasize action. The word “gayot” or ““giud” or “gyot”, “gayod” comes from the Visayan word “giud” or “gyot” It is used to emphasize a word or phrase.
The sun is hot. Caliente el sol.
The sun is very hot. Bien caliente gayot el sol.
It is cold in the rain. Frió na ulan.
It is very cold in the rain. Bien frió gayot na ulan.
The use of “anay”
The Chavacano word for termites is “anay”.
However, the word “anay” is also used in several other ways, to describe, modify an action or activity. The Word “anay” is of Visayan origin and used as such in that dialect.
In general “anay” is used to qualify an activity that is indefinite or precedes another activity.
I will eat my breakfat at six this morning.
El come yo mi almuerzo alas seis del aga. Or El almorza anay yo alas seis del aga.
When an activity is about to be done, but another unplanned activity precedes this activity, the word “anay” is used as in the preceding sentence.
Ex. Jose is about to go to work, but he changed his mind and decided to eat bananas.
He says: I will eat bananas before I leave.
El come yo anay saging antes de larga para trabajo.
Take a nap before you go.
Man siesta anay antes tu larga.
The use of “tamen”/ “tambien”
The word “also” is translated as tambien. The Chavacanos also use “Tamen” for the word “also.”
I also Yo tamen You also tu tamen
I also like to sleep Quiere tamen yo durmi
Me also Yo tambien They also sila tamen
The use of “man” or “hace”
Chavacanos usually improvise action words of English terms that have no Chavacano equivalent by using the word “man” . Example, to apologize, become “man apologize” , “to forgive “man forgive”, The Chavacano uses “man” to “convert” English verbs/words into Chavacano verbs.
Chavacanos usually mix English words with Chavacano when they ran out of vocabulary in conversation. The average Chavacano speaks and understand English.
Chavacanos use the work “hace” or “make” to denote that a word is used as a verb.
Thus the word “hace” is combined with the action word to become a Chavacano verb. In the word chase (lagas) the Chavacano verb would be hace lagas /make chase.
The letter “H” in Spanish is not pronounced at all. In like manner, words with “H” as the starting letter are pronounced minus the H. Thus “hospital” in Chavacano is spelled hospital but pronounced “ospital”. Hotel is pronounced “otel”.
Most of the words in this book are in use by the old folks as the younger ones opt for their English equivalents. As expected the old folks (in their 60’s and above) speak more “Spanish” than the younger ones.
Incidentally, Zamboanga was also the center of the education efforts of the American colonizers. Thus, among other residents inMindanao, the people in Zamboanga had direct contacts with English speakers. Most are fluent in English. TheZamboangaNormal School(1907) now theWesternMindanaoStateUniversity, was the premier teacher training institution inMindanao, and primarily aimed to propagate English.
The use of tu, ka, etu, ikaw
The younger generation have started the use of “etu” “ikaw” for personal pronoun “you” for “tu”. The elder generation frowns on the use of these words adopted/ adapted from the Tagalog pronouns as vulgar. The use of these Tagalog pronouns is getting into the Chavacano. The younger set say they find it a little formal to use “tu” “ustedes” and the like. Incidentally, there are still no fixed forms in the use of “etu, ikaw, ka” which are alternately used for the Chavacano “tu, uste etc.” The old “nosotros,” is now replaced by “kame” from Tagalog “kami”, as:
Where are you going? Donde tu anda?
(vulgar)Donde ka anda? Donde etu anda?
What’s your name? Cosa tuyo nombre?
(vulgar) Cosa de ikaw?/de etu nombre?
The use of “ado” and “ao”
The correct form is ado but in speaking you will hear “ao” which is an incorrect form of ending the word. Chavacano translation in the dictionary portion of this book ending in “ado” can also be read with ending “ao”.
Sometimes people like to write words as they pronounce them. Just like we sometimes write “gotta” and “gonna”, people sometimes use “habláo” instead of “hablado”.